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The Astronomers
Public Videos of lonewolf
Videos 176-200 of 591
Astronomy: Dark Matter and Dark Energy
 
07:43

Astronomy: Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Dark Matter, In astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is a form of matter that is undetectable by its emitted electromagnetic radiation, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter and background radiation. According to present observations of structures larger than galaxies, as well as Big Bang cosmology, dark matter accounts for the vast majority of the mass in the observable universe. Dark Energy: In physical cosmology, astronomy and celestial mechanics, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations and experiments that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 74% of the total mass-energy of the universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:54 pm
Views: 464 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Gravitational clustering as a result of particle expansion
 
00:34

Gravitational clustering as a result of particle expansion

Visit http://www.avantgravity.com/3d_expansion_crosseye.html for an updated, higher-res version of this animation. A visual experiment to see what happens when an array of physically proximate particles begin expanding: Individual particles expand into one another and eventually form stable clusters, bound by the outward pressure of their expansion. Those stable clusters would continue to expand into one another to form larger superstructures of wildly varying size and complexity. For the next 13.7 billion years, every physical object in our universe would be composed of snowballing clusters and superstructures of expanding particles, that would continue expanding right along with the rest of the rapidly inflating universe. In fact, if everything were made up of particles expanding at the same rate, then from within the universe it might be nearly impossible to tell that the expansion was happening at all, but expansion at a particle level would be driving the expansion at a cosmic level. Now remember that we are a part of the framework we observe, so every person would be made up of those same expanding particles, and all we would directly observe is the appearance of large masses moving towards one another. At the tiniest scales, this effect might look a great deal like the strong nuclear force. At larger orders of magnitude, it would look a lot like gravity.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:54 pm
Views: 441 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Mysteries of a Dark Universe
 
25:00

Mysteries of a Dark Universe

Watch this video commercial free on the SpaceRip app, available in the Apple and Google Play stores. DARK ENERGY in Full HD 1080p. Cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole, has been turned on its head by a stunning discovery that the universe is flying apart in all directions at an ever-increasing rate. Is the universe bursting at the seams? Or is nature somehow fooling us? The astronomers whose data revealed this accelerating universe have been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. And yet, since 1998, when the discovery was first announced, scientists have struggled to come to grips with a mysterious presence that now appears to control the future of the cosmos: dark energy. On remote mountaintops around the world, major astronomical centers hum along, with state of the art digital sensors, computers, air conditioning, infrastructure, and motors to turn the giant telescopes. Deep in Chile's Atacama desert, the Paranal Observatory is an astronomical Mecca. This facility draws two megawatts of power, enough for around two thousand homes. What astronomers get for all this is photons, tiny mass-less particles of light. They stream in from across time and space by the trillions from nearby sources, down to one or two per second from objects at the edge of the visible universe. In this age of precision astronomy, observers have been studying the properties of these particles, to find clues to how stars live and die, how galaxies form, how black holes grow, and more. But for all we've learned, we are finding out just how much still eludes our grasp, how short our efforts to understand the workings of the universe still fall. A hundred years ago, most astronomers believed the universe consisted of a grand disk, the Milky Way. They saw stars, like our own sun, moving around it amid giant regions of dust and luminous gas. The overall size and shape of this "island universe" appeared static and unchanging. That view posed a challenge to Albert Einstein, who sought to explore the role that gravity, a dynamic force, plays in the universe as a whole. There is a now legendary story in which Einstein tried to show why the gravity of all the stars and gas out there didn't simply cause the universe to collapse into a heap. He reasoned that there must be some repulsive force that countered gravity and held the Universe up. He called this force the "cosmological constant." Represented in his equations by the Greek letter Lambda, it's often referred to as a fudge factor. In 1916, the idea seemed reasonable. The Dutch physicist Willem de Sitter solved Einstein's equations with a cosmological constant, lending support to the idea of a static universe. Now enter the American astronomer, Vesto Slipher. Working at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona, he examined a series of fuzzy patches in the sky called spiral nebulae, what we know as galaxies. He found that their light was slightly shifted in color. It's similar to the way a siren distorts, as an ambulance races past us. If an object is moving toward Earth, the wavelength of its light is compressed, making it bluer. If it's moving away, the light gets stretched out, making it redder. 12 of the 15 nebulae that Slipher examined were red-shifted, a sign they are racing away from us. Edwin Hubble, a young astronomer, went in for a closer look. Using the giant new Hooker telescope in Southern California, he scoured the nebulae for a type of pulsating star, called a Cepheid. The rate at which their light rises and falls is an indicator of their intrinsic brightness. By measuring their apparent brightness, Hubble could calculate the distance to their host galaxies. Combining distances with redshifts, he found that the farther away these spirals are, the faster they are moving away from us. This relationship, called the Hubble Constant, showed that the universe is not static, but expanding. Einstein acknowledged the breakthrough, and admitted that his famous fudge factor was the greatest blunder of his career.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:54 pm
Views: 552 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

ESOcast 40: Accelerating Universe Discovery Wins 2011 Nobel Prize for Physics [720p]
 
07:01

ESOcast 40: Accelerating Universe Discovery Wins 2011 Nobel Prize for Physics [720p]

In the past two decades, astronomers have made a truly revolutionary discovery: that the cosmos is not only expanding, but is doing so at an ever-faster rate. The discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe was awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. credit: ESO source: http://www.eso.org/public/videos/esocast40a/

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 318 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Nobel Prize Winner Brian Schmidt - Physics 2011
 
02:40

Nobel Prize Winner Brian Schmidt - Physics 2011

The Nobel Prize for physics in 2011 was awarded to Brian Schmidt, Adam Riess, and Saul Perlmutter for discovering that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. This finding was completely unexpected because it was thought that gravity should slow the expansion of the cosmos. The best current explanation of why the universe is accelerating is that there is some energy tied to empty space which pushes matter apart. This 'Dark Energy' makes up 73% of the universe but is very difficult to detect. Hopefully a better understanding of it will lead to a unification of our theories of gravitation and quantum mechanics. Images courtesy of NASA - NASAimages.org

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 311 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Michio Kaku: What's the Fate of the Universe? It's in the Dark Matter
 
05:08

Michio Kaku: What's the Fate of the Universe? It's in the Dark Matter

Why should you bother to wake up tomorrow knowing that we're all going to die billions and billions of years from now when the universe turns to absolute zero, when the stars blink out, when we have nothing but neutron stars and black holes? Dr. Kaku says that billions of years from now we may be able to move to a different universe. Transcript -- In cosmology we believe that the universe started off in a big bang 13.7 billion years ago. All alternatives have been pretty much ruled out. Steady state theories, other alternatives have been ruled out. However, how will the universe end? We have several possibilities. One possibility is a big crunch when the universe squashes together in a gigantic ball of flame and maybe bangs once again. Another possibility is the big freeze, that the universe expands and just keeps on going and we're all going to freeze to death and we're all going to die when the universe reaches near absolute zero. Then there is something called the big rip where the universe goes into an exponential expansion and expands so rapidly that the distant galaxies can no longer be seen because they travel faster than the speed of light, that even the distant galaxies break the light barrier, and that's called the big rip, meaning that the night sky will be totally black except for some of the nearby stars. Which of the three alternatives is the fate of the universe? Well, the short answer is we don't know. However, what we do know is that the universe is undergoing an exponential runaway expansion. The universe at the present time is careening out of control. Every astronomy textbook says that there was a big bang. The universe is expanding, but it's slowing down. It also says that the universe is mainly made out of atoms. Every textbook says that. The universe is made out of atoms. The universe is expanding, but slowing down. Both are wrong. We have to rewrite every single high school textbook on the planet earth. The universe is not mainly made out of atoms. Four percent of the universe is made out of atoms, just four percent. 23% is made out of dark matter. 73%, which makes up most of the universe, is dark energy, and unfortunately, we are clueless as to what dark energy is and what dark matter is. In fact, if you ever find out what dark energy and dark matter is, be sure to tell me first. Now why is that important? Because the amount of matter and energy in the universe determines the rate of expansion. We now know there is a lot more dark energy than we previously thought. Therefore, the universe is undergoing an inflationary exponential expansion. It is in a runaway mode, but here is the catch: we don't know how long that runaway mode is going to last. Some people say that it's temporary. We're in this huge expansion right now, exponential expansion, but it's going to reverse itself. Instead of a red shift, we'll have a blue shift as the universe collapses. At the present time we simply don't know. Why don't we know? Because we don't know what dark energy is. In fact, if you were to try to write down a theory of dark energy, your number would not correspond to the data by a mismatch of 10 to the 120. That is the largest mismatch in the history of science. There is no mismatch bigger than 10 to the 120. So this is a mystery. Until we solve the mystery of dark energy, we do not know the ultimate fate of the universe. My personal thoughts are that perhaps we will continue with this exponential expansion and perhaps go into a big rip mode and at that point all intelligent life in the universe will die. All the tears and all the struggles and all the heartbreak of humanity since we rose from the swamp, it's all for nothing. Why should you bother to wake up tomorrow knowing that we're all going to die billions and billions of years from now when the universe turns to absolute zero, when the stars blink out, when we have nothing but neutron stars and black holes? What does it all mean anyway, if we're all going to die in a big rip? Well, my personal attitude is that when the universe is about to die, why not leave the universe? Trillions of years from now, we will have the ability to bend space and time into a pretzel. We'll be able to tie space into knots. We'll be what is called a type three, maybe a type four civilization, a galactic civilization with the capability of harnessing galactic power. At that point, when the universe becomes so cold that all life is freezing to death, I say let us escape the universe, go into hyperspace and go to another universe. Directed / Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Elizabeth Rodd

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
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The Decreasing Speed of Light - Evidence by Barry Setterfield
 
01:19:36

The Decreasing Speed of Light - Evidence by Barry Setterfield

The speed of light and rate of radioactive decay have and continue to decrease. This provides evidence for thecreation of the universe as being a rapid expansion as stated in 16 verses in the Bible in both The Old and New Testaments (God spread out the heavens). it also refutes Big Bang theory since this expansion took place at a rate vastly faster than the BB theory coud possibly allow. It also discredits the claim that red shift is evidence the universe is billions of years ald and provides for a young universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 1345 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Dark secrets: what science tells us about the hidden Universe
 
01:33:01

Dark secrets: what science tells us about the hidden Universe

Oct. 26, 2009, Berkeley Lab Science at the Theater: No mystery is bigger than dark energy — the elusive force that makes up three-quarters of the Universe and is causing it to expand at an accelerating rate. KTVU Channel 2 health and science editor John Fowler will moderate a panel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists who use phenomena such as exploding stars and gravitational lenses to explore the dark cosmos. Saul Perlmutter heads the Supernova Cosmology Project, which pioneered the use of precise observations of exploding stars to study the expansion of the Universe. His international team was one of two groups who independently discovered the amazing phenomenon known as dark energy, and he led a collaboration that designed a satellite to study the nature of this dark force. He is an astrophysicist at Berkeley Lab and a professor of physics at UC Berkeley. David Schlegel is a Berkeley Lab astrophysicist and the principal investigator of Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), the largest of four night-sky surveys being conducted in the third phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, known as SDSS-III. BOSS will generate a 3-D map of two million galaxies and quasars, using a specially built instrument outfitted with 1,000 optical fibers and mounted on the SDSS telescope in New Mexico. Alexie Leauthaud is Chamberlain Fellow at Berkeley Lab. Her work probes dark matter in the Universe using a technique called gravitational lensing. When gravity from a massive object such as a cluster of galaxies warps space around it, this can distort our view of the light from an even more distant object. The scale and direction of this distortion allows astronomers to directly measure the properties of both dark matter and dark energy.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
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Cosmological Constant - Evidence of Design in Nature Leonard Susskind Theoretical Physicist
 
02:50

Cosmological Constant - Evidence of Design in Nature Leonard Susskind Theoretical Physicist

Cosmological Constant - Evidence of Design in Nature Leonard Susskind Theoretical Physicist - Stanford University Definition: The cosmological constant is a constant term in field equations of general relativity, represented by the Greek symbol Lambda, which allowed for a static universe. Later evidence supported the fact that the universe was indeed expanding and the cosmological constant was believed to be zero. Evidence in the late 1990s has begun supporting the idea that the universe is not only expanding, but that the expansion rate is actually accelerating due to the presence of dark energy. Einstein's Biggest Blunder When Albert Einstein developed his theory of general relativity, he realized that they implied an unstable equilibrium position. Any slight unevenness would cause spacetime to expand or contract. He had the philosophical belief (as did most physicists of the time) in a static universe, so he added a constant term which was allowed (but not required) onto the end of his equation when he published the theory in 1916. In 1929, however, the astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered evidence that distant galaxies were receding from our own galaxy. Though Einstein's model, with the cosmological constant, other models by Alexander Friedmann and Willem de Sitter (which didn't include the cosmological constant) had predicted such expansion quite clearly. Einstein quickly accepted the new evidence and told physicist George Gamow that the cosmological constant idea was the "biggest blunder" of his life. Cosmological Constant Revisited In 1998, two different teams of researchers discovered evidence that the universe's expansion was actually speeding up. This meant that the cosmological constant wasn't just zero, as expected, but had to have a very slight positive value. The theory that has grown up around this positive cosmological constant is the theory of dark energy. Also Known As: vacuum energy vacuum pressure negative pressure dark energy Lambda Cosmological Constant - More on Relativity Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity Einstein's Theory of General Relativity Fundamental Concepts & Controversies of Relativity Cosmological Constant - Historical Information Albert Einstein - Biographical Profile Books About Einstein & Relativity Doppler Effect for Light Cosmological Constant - Related Concepts Dark Energy Spacetime The Big Bang Theory

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
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Johns Hopkins Astrophysicist Adam Riess wins Nobel Prize
 
02:05

Johns Hopkins Astrophysicist Adam Riess wins Nobel Prize

On Tuesday, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences recognized Adam Riess, the Krieger-Eisenhower Professor in Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins and a scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute, for his leadership in the High-z Team's 1998 discovery that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating, a phenomenon widely attributed to a mysterious, unexplained "dark energy" filling the universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 311 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [5/5]
 
09:27

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [5/5]

Dark matter are invisible objects that react with matter by gravitational force. Scientists believe that the dark matter is made up of exotic particles like WIMPs(Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).In physical cosmology, dark energy is an exotic form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.Dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of the universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 298 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [4/5]
 
07:50

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [4/5]

Dark matter are invisible objects that react with matter by gravitational force. Scientists believe that the dark matter is made up of exotic particles like WIMPs(Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).In physical cosmology, dark energy is an exotic form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.Dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of the universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 365 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [3/5]
 
09:13

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [3/5]

Dark matter are invisible objects that react with matter by gravitational force. Scientists believe that the dark matter is made up of exotic particles like WIMPs(Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).In physical cosmology, dark energy is an exotic form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.Dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of the universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 338 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [2/5]
 
08:59

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [2/5]

Dark matter are invisible objects that react with matter by gravitational force. Scientists believe that the dark matter is made up of exotic particles like WIMPs(Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).In physical cosmology, dark energy is an exotic form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.Dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of the universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 377 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [1/5]
 
09:04

The Dark Matter & Dark Energy [1/5]

Dark matter are invisible objects that react with matter by gravitational force. Scientists believe that the dark matter is made up of exotic particles like WIMPs(Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).In physical cosmology, dark energy is an exotic form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.Dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of the universe.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 379 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Fred Adams: Expanding Universe Conference (http://www.lowell.edu/workshops/slipher)
 
36:51

Fred Adams: Expanding Universe Conference (http://www.lowell.edu/workshops/slipher)

Title: The FUTURE History of Cosmic Expansion (and constituent astrophysical objects) Abstract: The discovery of the cosmic expansion had a profound influence on our understanding of the past history of the universe. This talk outlines the future history of the cosmos as it continues to expand: we consider the evolution of planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe itself over time scales that greatly exceed the current cosmic age. The discussion starts with the effects of accelerated cosmic expansion, which causes every galaxy cluster to become its own island universe. Within these bound structure, the lowest mass stars continue to burn hydrogen over much longer times, and evolve off the main-sequence near the epoch when conventional star formation ends. The stellar population is thus converted into degenerate remnants -- neutron stars, white dwarfs, and brown dwarfs. Although the supply of interstellar gas grows depleted, star formation continues at an attenuated rate through brown dwarf collisions. As the galaxy evaporates via dynamical relaxation, dark matter particles are accreted by white dwarfs, where they annihilate and keep the stellar remnants relatively warm. Over longer time scales, the degenerate objects evolve and sublimate through the decay of their constituent nucleons. When the white dwarfs and neutron stars disappear, black holes are the brightest astrophysical objects, slowly losing their mass as they emit Hawking radiation. After the largest black holes have evaporated, the universe slowly slides into darkness.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
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What different aspects make up the Grand Unified Theory of the universe?
 
05:42

What different aspects make up the Grand Unified Theory of the universe?

The panel discusses: Grand Unified Theory. Cosmic microwave background radiation. Dark matter. Type 1A supernova. Expansion rate of the universe. The Cosmological Constant. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Micro-lensing. Large Hadron Collider. The standard model of cosmology. Higgs-Boson. Super Symmetry.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
Views: 313 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Teach Astronomy - Cosmological Principle
 
01:26

Teach Astronomy - Cosmological Principle

http://www.teachastronomy.com/ A very basic assumption about the universe which forms the basis for modern cosmology is called the cosmological principle, that the universe is isotropic and homogeneous. Isotropic means the same in all directions. This means that in any direction we look we tend to see the same structures and numbers of galaxies, and that is in fact confirmed by observation. It also means that the Hubble expansion is the same in every direction we look, that the expansion rate is smooth and not faster in one direction of the sky than in another direction, and this is also confirmed by observations. The second part of the cosmological principle, the homogeneity of space, is much more difficult to test because as we look out in space we look back in time. So when we view distant parts of the universe we are viewing parts of the universe as they were earlier when the universe was smaller, but we can basically test the idea by showing that the universe contains more or less the same structures everywhere we look and that on the largest scales, over a hundred megaparsecs or three hundred million light years, the average amount of material in any volume of space from one direction to the other is about the same. So the universe is indeed smooth on the very largest scales.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:50 pm
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Teach Astronomy - Cosmological Constant
 
01:26

Teach Astronomy - Cosmological Constant

http://www.teachastronomy.com/ Why is the universe accelerating, and how does this relate to the more standard cosmological idea that since the big bang the expansion rate has been decelerating due to the action of gravity on all the matter of universe? For the answer to this we have to go back to Einstein in the 1920s. Einstein solved the equations of General Relativity and realized that the solutions naturally indicated expansion or contraction. When told that the universe was static, Einstein added a term to the solution of his equations called the cosmological constant to suppress the natural expansion. Thus the cosmological constant represents something that acts opposite to gravity. Gravity is an attractive force; the cosmological constant represents something that is repulsive. In the standard model of the universe with a cosmological constant the big bang is followed by a period of deceleration due to all the matter in the universe. And then at some epoch several billion years ago the deceleration changes into an acceleration, and the rate of expansion increases. We are currently witnessing a phase of acceleration in the universe and its evidence that the term in gravity is balanced by another term, the cosmological constant.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:48 pm
Views: 356 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Size of the universe
 
20:14

Size of the universe

The mind-blowing answer comes from a theory describing the birth of the universe in the first instant of time. The universe has long captivated us with its immense scales of distance and time. How far does it stretch? Where does it end... and what lies beyond its star fields... and streams of galaxies extending as far as telescopes can see? These questions are beginning to yield to a series of extraordinary new lines of investigation... and technologies that are letting us to peer into the most distant realms of the cosmos... But also at the behavior of matter and energy on the smallest of scales. Remarkably, our growing understanding of this kingdom of the ultra-tiny, inside the nuclei of atoms, permits us to glimpse the largest vistas of space and time. In ancient times, most observers saw the stars as a sphere surrounding the earth, often the home of deities. The Greeks were the first to see celestial events as phenomena, subject to human investigation... rather than the fickle whims of the Gods. One sky-watcher, for example, suggested that meteors are made of materials found on Earth... and might have even come from the Earth. Those early astronomers built the foundations of modern science. But they would be shocked to see the discoveries made by their counterparts today. The stars and planets that once harbored the gods are now seen as infinitesimal parts of a vast scaffolding of matter and energy extending far out into space. Just how far... began to emerge in the 1920s. Working at the huge new 100-inch Hooker Telescope on California's Mt. Wilson, astronomer Edwin Hubble, along with his assistant named Milt Humason, analyzed the light of fuzzy patches of sky... known then as nebulae. They showed that these were actually distant galaxies far beyond our own. Hubble and Humason discovered that most of them are moving away from us. The farther out they looked, the faster they were receding. This fact, now known as Hubble's law, suggests that there must have been a time when the matter in all these galaxies was together in one place. That time... when our universe sprung forth... has come to be called the Big Bang. How large the cosmos has gotten since then depends on how long its been growing... and its expansion rate. Recent precision measurements gathered by the Hubble space telescope and other instruments have brought a consensus... That the universe dates back 13.7 billion years. Its radius, then, is the distance a beam of light would have traveled in that time ... 13.7 billion light years. That works out to about 1.3 quadrillion kilometers. In fact, it's even bigger.... Much bigger. How it got so large, so fast, was until recently a deep mystery. That the universe could expand had been predicted back in 1917 by Albert Einstein, except that Einstein himself didn't believe it... until he saw Hubble and Humason's evidence. Einstein's general theory of relativity suggested that galaxies could be moving apart because space itself is expanding. So when a photon gets blasted out from a distant star, it moves through a cosmic landscape that is getting larger and larger, increasing the distance it must travel to reach us. In 1995, the orbiting telescope named for Edwin Hubble began to take the measure of the universe... by looking for the most distant galaxies it could see. Taking the expansion of the universe into account, the space telescope found galaxies that are now almost 46 billion light years away from us in each direction... and almost 92 billion light years from each other. And that would be the whole universe... according to a straightforward model of the big bang. But remarkably, that might be a mere speck within the universe as a whole, according to a dramatic new theory that describes the origins of the cosmos. It's based on the discovery that energy is constantly welling up from the vacuum of space in the form of particles of opposite charge... matter and anti-matter. Category:

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:48 pm
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Dark energy camera explores universe expansion
 
00:42

Dark energy camera explores universe expansion

Astronomers at the National Science Foundation's observatory in Chile hope their new dark energy camera will discover clues as to why the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Felipe Maya reports.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:48 pm
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Hubble Views the Star that Changed the Universe
 
01:00

Hubble Views the Star that Changed the Universe

Though the universe is filled with billions upon billions of stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has been trained on a single variable star that in 1923 altered the course of modern astronomy. And, at least one famous astronomer of the time lamented that the discovery had shattered his world view. The star goes by the inauspicious name of Hubble variable number one, or V1, and resides two million light-years away in the outer regions of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy, or M31. V1 is a special class of pulsating star called a Cepheid variable that can be used to make reliable measurements of large cosmic distances. The star helped Edwin Hubble show that Andromeda lies beyond our galaxy. Prior to the discovery of V1 many astronomers, including Harlow Shapley, thought spiral nebulae, such as Andromeda, were part of our Milky Way galaxy. Others weren't so sure. In fact, Shapley and Heber Curtis held a public debate in 1920 over the nature of these nebulae. But it took Edwin Hubble's discovery just a few years later to settle the debate. Hubble sent a letter, along with a light curve of V1, to Shapley telling him of his discovery. After reading the note, Shapley reportedly told a colleague, "here is the letter that destroyed my universe." The universe became a much bigger place after Edwin Hubble's discovery. In commemoration of this landmark observation, astronomers with the Space Telescope Science Institute's Hubble Heritage Project partnered with the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) to study the star. AAVSO observers followed V1 for six months, producing a plot, or light curve, of the rhythmic rise and fall of the star's light. Based on this data, the Hubble Heritage team scheduled Hubble telescope time to capture Wide Field Camera 3 images of the star at its dimmest and brightest light levels. The observations are being presented on May 23 at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Boston, Mass. Copies of the photograph Edwin Hubble made in 1923 flew onboard space shuttle Discovery in 1990 on the mission that deployed Hubble. Two of the remaining five copies were part of space shuttle Atlantis's cargo in 2009 for NASA's fifth servicing mission to Hubble. Edwin Hubble's observations of V1 became the critical first step in uncovering a larger, grander universe. He went on to measure the distances to many galaxies beyond the Milky Way by finding Cepheid variables within them. The velocities of those galaxies, in turn, allowed him to determine that the universe is expanding. The space telescope that bears his namesake continues using Cepheids to refine the expansion rate of the universe and probe galaxies far beyond Edwin Hubble's reach.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:48 pm
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How Large is the Universe
 
20:14

How Large is the Universe

The mind-blowing answer comes from a theory describing the birth of the universe in the first instant of time. The universe has long captivated us with its immense scales of distance and time. How far does it stretch? Where does it end... and what lies beyond its star fields... and streams of galaxies extending as far as telescopes can see? These questions are beginning to yield to a series of extraordinary new lines of investigation... and technologies that are letting us to peer into the most distant realms of the cosmos... But also at the behavior of matter and energy on the smallest of scales. Remarkably, our growing understanding of this kingdom of the ultra-tiny, inside the nuclei of atoms, permits us to glimpse the largest vistas of space and time. In ancient times, most observers saw the stars as a sphere surrounding the earth, often the home of deities. The Greeks were the first to see celestial events as phenomena, subject to human investigation... rather than the fickle whims of the Gods. One sky-watcher, for example, suggested that meteors are made of materials found on Earth... and might have even come from the Earth. Those early astronomers built the foundations of modern science. But they would be shocked to see the discoveries made by their counterparts today. The stars and planets that once harbored the gods are now seen as infinitesimal parts of a vast scaffolding of matter and energy extending far out into space. Just how far... began to emerge in the 1920s. Working at the huge new 100-inch Hooker Telescope on California's Mt. Wilson, astronomer Edwin Hubble, along with his assistant named Milt Humason, analyzed the light of fuzzy patches of sky... known then as nebulae. They showed that these were actually distant galaxies far beyond our own. Hubble and Humason discovered that most of them are moving away from us. The farther out they looked, the faster they were receding. This fact, now known as Hubble's law, suggests that there must have been a time when the matter in all these galaxies was together in one place. That time... when our universe sprung forth... has come to be called the Big Bang. How large the cosmos has gotten since then depends on how long its been growing... and its expansion rate. Recent precision measurements gathered by the Hubble space telescope and other instruments have brought a consensus... That the universe dates back 13.7 billion years. Its radius, then, is the distance a beam of light would have traveled in that time ... 13.7 billion light years. That works out to about 1.3 quadrillion kilometers. In fact, it's even bigger.... Much bigger. How it got so large, so fast, was until recently a deep mystery. That the universe could expand had been predicted back in 1917 by Albert Einstein, except that Einstein himself didn't believe it... until he saw Hubble and Humason's evidence. Einstein's general theory of relativity suggested that galaxies could be moving apart because space itself is expanding. So when a photon gets blasted out from a distant star, it moves through a cosmic landscape that is getting larger and larger, increasing the distance it must travel to reach us. In 1995, the orbiting telescope named for Edwin Hubble began to take the measure of the universe... by looking for the most distant galaxies it could see. Taking the expansion of the universe into account, the space telescope found galaxies that are now almost 46 billion light years away from us in each direction... and almost 92 billion light years from each other. And that would be the whole universe... according to a straightforward model of the big bang. But remarkably, that might be a mere speck within the universe as a whole, according to a dramatic new theory that describes the origins of the cosmos. It's based on the discovery that energy is constantly welling up from the vacuum of space in the form of particles of opposite charge... matter and anti-matter.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:48 pm
Views: 626 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

How Large is the Universe?
 
25:04

How Large is the Universe?

Check out this REVISED and EXPANDED 1080P version of our Cosmic Journeys episode. The universe has long captivated us with its immense scales of distance and time. How far does it stretch? Where does it end, and what lies beyond its star fields and streams of galaxies extending as far as telescopes can see? These questions are beginning to yield to a series of extraordinary new lines of investigation and technologies that are letting us to peer into the most distant realms of the cosmos. But also at the behavior of matter and energy on the smallest of scales. Remarkably, our growing understanding of this kingdom of the ultra-tiny, inside the nuclei of atoms, permits us to glimpse the largest vistas of space and time. In ancient times, most observers saw the stars as a sphere surrounding the earth, often the home of deities. The Greeks were the first to see celestial events as phenomena, subject to human investigation rather than the fickle whims of the Gods. One sky-watcher, for example, suggested that meteors are made of materials found on Earth... and might have even come from the Earth. Those early astronomers built the foundations of modern science. But they would be shocked to see the discoveries made by their counterparts today. The stars and planets that once harbored the gods are now seen as infinitesimal parts of a vast scaffolding of matter and energy extending far out into space. Just how far began to emerge in the 1920s. Working at the huge new 100-inch Hooker Telescope on California's Mt. Wilson, astronomer Edwin Hubble, along with his assistant named Milt Humason, analyzed the light of fuzzy patches of sky... known then as nebulae. They showed that these were actually distant galaxies far beyond our own. Hubble and Humason discovered that most of them are moving away from us. The farther out they looked, the faster they were receding. This fact, now known as Hubble's law, suggests that there must have been a time when the matter in all these galaxies was together in one place. That time, when our universe sprung forth, has come to be called the Big Bang. How large the cosmos has gotten since then depends on how long its been growing and its expansion rate. Recent precision measurements gathered by the Hubble space telescope and other instruments have brought a consensus... That the universe dates back 13.7 billion years. Its radius, then, is the distance a beam of light would have traveled in that time ... 13.7 billion light years. That works out to about 1.3 quadrillion kilometers. In fact, it's even bigger.... Much bigger. How it got so large, so fast, was until recently a deep mystery. That the universe could expand had been predicted back in 1917 by Albert Einstein, except that Einstein himself didn't believe it until he saw Hubble and Humason's evidence. Einstein's general theory of relativity suggested that galaxies could be moving apart because space itself is expanding. So when a photon gets blasted out from a distant star, it moves through a cosmic landscape that is getting larger and larger, increasing the distance it must travel to reach us. In 1995, the orbiting telescope named for Edwin Hubble began to take the measure of the universe... by looking for the most distant galaxies it could see. Taking the expansion of the universe into account, the space telescope found galaxies that are now almost 46 billion light years away from us in each direction... and almost 92 billion light years from each other. And that would be the whole universe... according to a straightforward model of the big bang. But remarkably, that might be a mere speck within the universe as a whole, according to a dramatic new theory that describes the origins of the cosmos.

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:48 pm
Views: 460 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated

Stephen Hawking - The Expanding Universe
 
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Stephen Hawking - The Expanding Universe

Professor Stephen Hawking discusses the expanding universe, the doppler effect, and introduces the birth of the universe. Into The Universe With Stephen Hawking - The Story of Everything This video belongs to Discovery Communications and is being used for educational purposes only

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Added: November 27, 2012, 6:48 pm
Views: 380 | Comments: 0 | Rating: Not yet rated