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The AstronomersNicolaus
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03:32
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World History Honors Period E Nicolaus Copernicus

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07:04
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Christian Revisionism - Nicolaus Copernicus

Excerpts from Stephen Hawking's commentary in _On the Shoulders of Giants_ ISBN 9780762413485 The elderly priest was hesitant to divulge his theory, lest it provoke church authorities to any angry response, and so he withheld his work from all but a few astronomers. Compernicus' landmark De Revolutionibus was published while he was on his deathbed, in 1543. He did not live long enough to witness the chaos his heliocentric theory would cause. In March of 1513, Copernicus purchased 800 building stones, and a barrel of lime from his chapter so that he could build an observation tower. There, he made use of astronomical instruments such as quadrants, parallactics and astrolabes to observe the sun, moon and stars. The following year, he wrote a brief Commentary on the Theories of the Motions of the Heavenly Objects from Their Arrangements (De hypothesibus motuum coelestium a se constitutis commentariolus), but he refused to publish the manuscript and only discreetly circulated it among his most trusted friends. The Commentary was a first attempt to propound an astronomical theory that the earth moves and the sun remains at rest. ... "We revolve around the Sun," he concluded in Commentary, "like any other planet. Still, Copernicus feared exposing himself to the contempt of the populace and the church, and he spent years working privately to amend and expand the Commentary The result was On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium) which he completed in 1530, but withheld from publication for thirteen years. The risk of the church's condemnation was not, however, the only reason for Copernicus' hesitancy to publish. Copernicus was a perfectionist and consider his observations in constant need of verification and revision. He continued to lecture on these principles of his planetary theory, even appearing before Pope Clement VII, who approved of his work. In 1536, Clement formally requested that Copernicus publish his theories. But it took a former pupil, 25-year-old Georg Joachim Rheticus of Germany, who relinquished his chair in mathematics in Wittenberg so that he could study under Copernicus, to persuade his master to publish On the Revolutions. In 1540, Rheticus assisted in the editing of the work and presented the manuscript to a Lutheran printed in Nuremberg, ultimately giving birth to the Copernican Revolution. When On the Revolutions appeared in 1543, it was attacked by Protestant theologians who held the premise of a heliocentric universe to be unbiblical. Copernicus' theories, they reasoned, might lead people to believe that they are simply part of a natural order, and not the masters of nature, the center around which nature was ordered. Because of this clerical opposition, and perhaps also general incredulity at the prospect of a non-geocentric universe, between 1543 and 1600, fewer than a dozen scientists embraced Copernican theory. Still, Copernicus had done nothing to resolve the major problem facing any system in which the earth rotated on its axis (and revolved around the sun), namely, how it is that terrestrial bodies stay with the rotating Earth. The answer was proposed by Giordano Bruno, and Italian scientist and avowed Copernican, who suggested that space might have no boundaries and that the solar system might be one of many such systems in the universe. Bruno also expanded on some purely speculative areas of astronomy that Copernicus did not explore in On the Revolutions. In his writings and lectures, the Italian scientist held that there were infinite worlds in the universe with intelligent life, some perhaps with beings superior to humans. Such audacity brought Bruno to the attention of the Inquisition, which tried and condemned him for his heretical beliefs. He was burned at the stake in 1600. By 1543, Copernicus became paralyzed on his right side, and weakened both physically and mentally. The man who was clearly a perfectionist had no choice but to surrender control of his manuscript, On the Revolutions, in the last stages of printing. He entrusted his student, George Rheticus with the manuscript, but when Rheticus was forced to leave Nuremberg, the manuscript fell into the hands of Lutheran theologian Andreas Osiander. Osiander, hoping to appease advocates of the geocentric theory, made several alterations without Copernicus's knowledge and consent. Osiander placed the word "hypothesis" on the title page, deleted important passages and added his own sentences which diluted the impact and certainty of the work. Copernicus was said to have received a copy of the printed book in Frauenburg on his deathbed, unaware of Osiander's revisions. The foreword, at first ascribed to Copernicus, is held to have been written by Andrew Osiander, a Lutheran theologian and friend of Copernicus, who saw the De Revolutionibus through the press.

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 1919 days ago by deek

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10:59
10:59
10:59

Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition

Johannes Kepler And The Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition - Best Of Carl Sagan's Cosmos (Part 18). Subscribe to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/SagansCosmos • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fScience • http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker BEST OF CARL SAGAN'S "COSMOS": 1) 10 Years After: Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan Reflect: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leTNfwfH0Jc 2) Lost Between Immensity And Eternity: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIVsDg6U0LU 3) The Realm Of The Galaxies: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1axoV6HhWfI 4) Our Galaxy, The Milky Way: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOazBTHzRYA 5) Our Solar System: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBqjob-UVeo 6) Eratosthenes And The Round Earth Model: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=en5UKtcNujI 7) The Library Of Alexandria: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVQs4B2jAW0 8) A Short History Of The Universe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7n2r0qOxJ6k 9) Artificial And Natural Selection: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3uToVWZkWM 10) The Cosmic Year: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFqbm_94nTM 11) Tree Of Life - 4 Billion Years Of Evolution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KF0UECN4ndA 12) The Miracle Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOyojWeOYNA 13) DNA - The Common Basis Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecmuvjSykf8 14) Abiogenesis The Origin Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yet1xkAv_HY 15) Astronomy vs Astrology: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImaQS9NJ0nI 16) Pictures In The Sky: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwCAwc4bge4 17) Ancient Astronomy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-5dwJwau1Y 18) Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lfmRqT-B_c 19) The Mysterious Tonguska Event: coming soon Carl Edward Sagan, Ph.D. (1934-1996) was an American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series "Cosmos: A Personal Voyage", which has been seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries, making it the most widely watched PBS program in history. A book to accompany the program was also published. He also wrote the novel "Contact", the basis for the 1997 Robert Zemecki's film of the same name starring Jodie Foster. During his lifetime, Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the scientific method. • http://www.carlsagan.com Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers based on his works "Astronomia nova", "Harmonices Mundi", and "Epitome of Copernican Astrononomy". They also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, the court mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II, a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei. Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of natural philosophy). • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler .

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 2759 days ago by deek

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00:52
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00:52

Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus founder of Heliocentric Cosmology

Channels: The Astronomers  Planetary science  Cosmic Debris 

Added: 2766 days ago by adminn

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