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The AstronomersThe
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59:00
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59:00

Space Odyssey: Voyage To The Planets 1 - BBC

Space Odyssey: Voyage To The Planets This two-part science fiction docu-drama examines the possibilities of a dangerous, manned space mission to explore the inner and outer planets of the Solar system. Five astronauts pilot the nuclear thermal rocket powered Pegasus spacecraft on a tour of the solar system. Their mission is a collaboration of the NASA, CSA, ESA and РКА space agencies and takes the crew to Venus, Mars, a close flyby of the Sun, Jupiter's moon Io and Europa, Saturn, Pluto, and the fictional Comet Yano-Moore. Most of the planetary destinations the crew reaches are followed by a manned landing there. Prior to the mission large tanks of hydrogen were deposited in stable orbits around the planets to allow the crew to refuel to have sufficient delta-v for the multi-year mission. The crew encounter many hardships and disappointments along the way. A Venus EVA that almost ends in disaster when the lander Orpheus encounters launch delays, the near-loss of the shield during the aerobrake in Jupiter's upper atmosphere (according to the first part of the miniseries) and the loss of samples from Jupiter's moon Io all test the crew's resolve. The most devastating blow comes when the ship's medical officer dies of solar radiation-induced lymphoma in Saturn orbit, forcing the crew to decide whether to continue the mission to Pluto, or abort and return to Earth. In the original British release, the crew decides to press on to Pluto, making history.

Channels: Planetary science 

Added: 1820 days ago by deek

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06:16
06:16
06:16

Galileo: The Renaissance Man

From: shmahfilms - Youtube user If you like this, go to www.shmahfilms.com! This was for a history project and my first attempt at animation - I think its pretty epic. Its very general take on Galileo's biography.

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 3069 days ago by Astro

Views: 6368 | Comments: 0

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00:01
00:01
00:01

The Universe is a strange place

About the Lecture Perhaps the universe is not so much strange as brimming with lovely paradox. The search for such beauty seems to lie at the heart of Frank Wilczek’s work. Twentieth century physics, from Einstein through Wilczek’s own Nobel Prize-winning efforts, involves demonstrating the existence of a topsy-turvy reality: for instance, that such sub-atomic particles as quarks and gluons, which have little or no mass, “orchestrate themselves into not just protons and neutrons but you and me,” according to Wilczek. “How is it possible to construct heavy objects out of objects that weigh nothing?,” he asks. Only by “creating mass out of pure energy.” These particles are essentially “excitations in otherwise empty space.” Says Wilczek: “That suggests something …beautiful and poetic: the masses of particles are not like, or similar to or metaphorically suggested by—they are the tones or frequencies of vibration patterns in dynamical voids.” The theory of quarks and gluons and the strong interaction accounts quantitatively for “the mass of protons, neutrons and ultimately you and me and everything around us.” But physics has not yet squared away all aspects of the universe. Wilzcek says that “in cosmology, we meet our match, and don’t know what’s going on.” This is because scientists can’t account for much of the mass in the cosmos. 70% of this mass is in “dark energy,” which is pushing the universe apart. Wilczek hopes that explanations for the dark stuff will emerge through improving equations, unifying theories of different interactions and extending their symmetries. “Beautifying equations leads not to ugly consequences but beautiful surprises,” he concludes.

Channels: Lectures In Astronomy  Cosmology  Major questions in astronomy 

Added: 2593 days ago by deek

Views: 2310 | Comments: 1

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10:59
10:59
10:59

The Library Of Alexandria - Best Of Carl Sagan's Cosmos (7)

The Library Of Alexandria - Best Of Carl Sagan's Cosmos (Part 7). --- Subscribe to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fScience • http://www.youtube.com/SagansCosmos • http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker --- BEST OF CARL SAGAN'S "COSMOS": 1) 10 Years After: Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan Reflect: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leTNfwfH0Jc 2) Lost Between Immensity And Eternity: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIVsDg6U0LU 3) The Realm Of The Galaxies: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1axoV6HhWfI 4) Our Galaxy, The Milky Way: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOazBTHzRYA 5) Our Solar System: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBqjob-UVeo 6) Eratosthenes And The Round Earth Model: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=en5UKtcNujI 7) The Library Of Alexandria: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVQs4B2jAW0 8) A Short History Of The Universe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7n2r0qOxJ6k 9) Artificial And Natural Selection: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3uToVWZkWM 10) The Cosmic Year: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFqbm_94nTM 11) Tree Of Life - 4 Billion Years Of Evolution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KF0UECN4ndA 12) The Miracle Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOyojWeOYNA 13) DNA - The Common Basis Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecmuvjSykf8 14) Abiogenesis The Origin Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yet1xkAv_HY 15) Astronomy vs Astrology: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImaQS9NJ0nI 16) Pictures In The Sky: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwCAwc4bge4 17) Ancient Astronomy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-5dwJwau1Y 18) Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lfmRqT-B_c 19) The Mysterious Tonguska Event: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irVof7adq4s --- Carl Edward Sagan, Ph.D. (1934-1996) was an American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series "Cosmos: A Personal Voyage", which has been seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries, making it the most widely watched PBS program in history. A book to accompany the program was also published. He also wrote the novel "Contact", the basis for the 1997 Robert Zemecki's film of the same name starring Jodie Foster. During his lifetime, Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the scientific method. http://www.carlsagan.com .

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 2701 days ago by deek

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10:12
10:12
10:12

The Ascent of Man - 11: Knowledge or Certainty 4/5

Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_1nnPXh2f1A Playlist: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=A3FC4D7ED67F4B1A The inspiration for Carl Sagans 1980 series, Cosmos, Jacob Bronowskis 1973 series, The Ascent of Man, alludes to and seeks to somewhat challenge the notion of some of Charles Darwins conclusions in The Decent of Man. Over the course of thirteen episodes, Bronowski travelled around the world in order to trace the development of human society through its understanding of science. Jacob Bronowski was one of a small group of men and women in any age who find all of human knowledge-the arts and sciences, philosophy and psychology-interesting and accessible. He was not confined to a single discipline, but ranged over the entire panorama of human learning. His book and television series, The Ascent of Man, are a superb teaching tool and a remarkable memorial; they are, in a way, an account of how human beings and human brains grew up together. Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden Part 11: Knowledge or Certainty Bronowski explores the impossibility of absolute certainty dictated by the laws of quantum mechanics .

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 2697 days ago by deek

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07:03
07:03
07:03

Ordono Mundi - In the beginning

Fellow travellers , welcome, to the middle of time, join us at the astronomers.org To rid the world of ignorant savages, spread the facts and travel the eternal road of infinite study

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Added: 2702 days ago by deek

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01:53
01:53
01:53

Stephen Hawking discusses his stint on 'The Simpsons'

Stephen Hawking discusses his first stint on The Simpsons in the episode "They Saved Lisa's Brain." and praises the show to be the best thing on American television.

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 2702 days ago by deek

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00:23
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00:23

Principal Skinner gets owned by Stephen Hawking

This is why you don't mess with quadriplegic theoretical physicists.

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 2702 days ago by deek

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00:01
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00:01

Welcome to the Universe

Welcome to the Universe

Channels: The Astronomers  Lectures In Astronomy  Cosmology  Cosmic Debris 

Added: 2660 days ago by Ordonomundi

Views: 1703 | Comments: 0

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02:02
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02:02

SDO: Solar Tornadoes (2012.02.07) [1080p]

Time-lapse animation showing enormous tornado-like vortices on the Sun's limb as seen by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory between 2012-02-07T08:00:00 and 2012-02-08T23:00:00. Each image in this animation was taken at 36 second intervals. credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio source: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?3919

Channels: Solar astronomy 

Added: 1763 days ago by deek

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08:49
08:49
08:49

RIR W Thornhill The Electric Universe 1/12

Author and researcher Wallace Thorhill joins us to discuss his work and book "The Electric Universe". He has been working closely with David Talbot over at thunderbolts.info and he's one of the voices in the "Thunderbolts of the Gods" DVD. Previously we've had Donald Scott and Rens van der Sluijs with us on the program, also contributors to thunderbolts.info, now Wallace joins us for an excellent two hour program as we explore the exciting theory of the electric universe. Topics Discussed: Immanuel Velikovsky, The Saturn Myth, Ancient Solar system, Gravity, Electricity, Journal of Classical Physics, Einstein, the Electric Universe Theory, Quasars, Black Holes, The Standard Model of the Sun, Solar Activity, Anode, Glow Discharge, Photosphere, Magnetism, Twisted Pairs, DNA shape of a Galaxy, Dark Currents, Fractal, The Nature of Gravity, Infinite Speed, Nerve Signaling Speed, Tom Van Flandern, The Origins of the Universe, Longitudinal System, Tesla, Free Energy and more. Don't miss hour two coming up with Wallace Thornhill for Red Ice Members, a very interesting continuation as we talk about Deep Impact, Temple One, Comets, Gravity, Discharge, Lightning, Sprites, Earthquakes and the relationship between the Earth, the Sun, the Galaxy and the Universe. We also go into the very fascinating area of Proto-Saturn, Saturn as a Brown Dwarf, this is our origins, we talk about what Wall calls "the Purple Dawn of Creation" and where the mythology and stories comes from in terms of our ancient past with two suns. Our solar system used to be a Binary Star system. So what happened to Saturn, we can still see effects of that today with the rings of Saturn and the hexagonal glow at its poles? We talk about Venus, Mars, the Sun, The Moon and comet's. We also get Wall's take on the "Norway Spiral". We talk about Plasma Discharge, Time Travel and the search for E.T. as well. March 11, 2010 http://www.redicecreations.com/

Channels: Major questions in astronomy 

Added: 1861 days ago by deek

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06:29
06:29
06:29

NO RESPECT FOR MORONS

One time fellow traveller welcome to the ministry of tspace time and the church of great stdy , I am the very reverend Ordo mundi humble servant of universe, maintainer of the laws of physic and student of the on ething greater than I am. great googly moogly

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Added: 2702 days ago by deek

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08:01
08:01
08:01

Radiometric Dating: Countering Objections

DNAunion counters the Young Earth Creationists' major objections to radiometric dating.

Channels: The Astronomers  Observational astronomy 

Added: 3060 days ago by Astro

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01:25
01:25
01:25

First Images of Alien Planet

Earth seems to have its first fuzzy photos of four alien planets outside our solar system. Three of them orbit the same distant star, Fomalhaut. The fourth circles a different star.

Channels: Extragalactic astronomy  Observational astronomy  Major questions in astronomy 

Added: 3049 days ago by Astro

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10:49
10:49
10:49

The Ascent of Man - 10: World within World 5/5

Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2cqMDBOrGI Playlist: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=A3FC4D7ED67F4B1A The inspiration for Carl Sagans 1980 series, Cosmos, Jacob Bronowskis 1973 series, The Ascent of Man, alludes to and seeks to somewhat challenge the notion of some of Charles Darwins conclusions in The Decent of Man. Over the course of thirteen episodes, Bronowski travelled around the world in order to trace the development of human society through its understanding of science. Jacob Bronowski was one of a small group of men and women in any age who find all of human knowledge-the arts and sciences, philosophy and psychology-interesting and accessible. He was not confined to a single discipline, but ranged over the entire panorama of human learning. His book and television series, The Ascent of Man, are a superb teaching tool and a remarkable memorial; they are, in a way, an account of how human beings and human brains grew up together. Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden Part 10: World within World Bronowski explores the chemical world: from the periodic table to quantum mechanics.

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 2697 days ago by deek

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00:01
00:01
00:01

Beyond the Big Bang (1/9)

2007© As Seen On Television (US) Season 1 Episode 14: Beyond the Big Bang SUMMARY: The universe began with a massive expansion, billions and billions of years ago, and it continues to expand with every passing second. The idea that the universe, and man's very existence, began with a "Big Bang" is no longer a topic of debate among most scientists--it is essentially taken as fact. How has man come to this conclusion, and how has our knowledge evolved so that we can recreate the very first seconds of our universe and all that has developed since? Interviews with the world's leading physicists and historians are woven together with animated recreations and first-person accounts to explain concepts such as the formation of galaxies, the creation of elements and the formation of Earth itself.

Channels: Planetary science  Cosmology 

Added: 3060 days ago by Astro

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09:03
09:03
09:03

How we calculate the age of the earth

Earth: How scientists can calculate the age of the earth

Channels: The Astronomers  Planetary science 

Added: 3060 days ago by Astro

Views: 1268 | Comments: 1

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05:09
05:09
05:09

ESO 20 Richest eXoPlanetary System Ever [HD] Discovered by HARPS (not HAARP!)

~credits video: http://youtube.com/ESOobservatory Astronomers using ESO instruments have discovered a remarkable extrasolar planetary system that has some striking similarities to our own Solar System. At least five planets are orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180, and the regular pattern of their orbits is similar to that observed for our neighbouring planets. One of the new extrasolar worlds could be only 1.4 times the mass of the Earth, making it the least massive exoplanet ever found. This video podcast explains how these faraway planets were detected and exactly what we know about them. Astronomers using ESO's world-leading HARPS instrument have discovered a planetary system containing at least five planets, orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180. The researchers also believe the system has two other planets, one of which would have the lowest mass ever found, making the system similar to our own Solar System in terms of the number of planets. Furthermore, the scientists find that the location of the planets follows a regular pattern, as also seen in our own Solar System The team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph, attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile. HARPS is an instrument with unrivalled stability and great precision, and the world's most successful exoplanet hunter. The astronomers, led by Christophe Lovis from the Geneva Observatory, studied the Sun-like star HD 10180 over a period of six years! This star is located 127 light-years away in the southern constellation Hydrus ("the Male Water Snake"). Thanks to the 190 individual HARPS measurements, the astronomers detected the wobbles of the star caused by five or more planets. The five strongest signals correspond to planets with Neptune-like masses — between 13 and 25 Earth masses — which orbit the star in between 6 to 600 days. The astronomers have also strong reason to believe that two other planets are present. One would be a Saturn-like planet orbiting in 2200 days. The other, having a mass of only about 1.4 times that of the Earth would be the least massive exoplanet ever discovered. This suspected planet is very close to its host star and so it is likely to be very hot. One 'year' on this planet lasts only 1.18 Earth-days! The newly discovered Solar System is unique in several respects. First of all, with at least five Neptune-like planets lying within a distance equivalent to the orbit of Mars, this system is more populated than our own Solar System in its inner region, and has many more massive planets there. Furthermore, the system probably has no Jupiter-like gas giant. In addition, all the planets seem to have almost circular orbits. Dynamical studies of the new system reveal complex interactions between planets and give us insights into its long-term evolution. Using the new discovery as well as data for other planetary systems, the astronomers discovered that the locations of the planets seem to follow a regular pattern — similar to the "Titius-Bode" law that exists in our Solar System. This could be a general signature of how planetary systems form. Another important result is that all very massive planetary systems are found around massive and metal-rich stars, while the four lowest-mass systems are found around lower-mass and metal-poor stars. These properties confirm current theoretical models. There is no doubt that this remarkable discovery highlights the fact that we are now entering a new era in exoplanet science: the study of complex planetary systems and not just of individual planets!! And with HARPS, European astronomers will be a driving force behind this transition. --- ESOcast is produced by ESO, the European Southern Observatory. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the pre-eminent intergovernmental science and technology organisation in astronomy designing, constructing and operating the world's most advanced ground-based telescopes. • http://eso.org

Channels: Planetary science 

Added: 1855 days ago by deek

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07:04
07:04
07:04

Christian Revisionism - Nicolaus Copernicus

Excerpts from Stephen Hawking's commentary in _On the Shoulders of Giants_ ISBN 9780762413485 The elderly priest was hesitant to divulge his theory, lest it provoke church authorities to any angry response, and so he withheld his work from all but a few astronomers. Compernicus' landmark De Revolutionibus was published while he was on his deathbed, in 1543. He did not live long enough to witness the chaos his heliocentric theory would cause. In March of 1513, Copernicus purchased 800 building stones, and a barrel of lime from his chapter so that he could build an observation tower. There, he made use of astronomical instruments such as quadrants, parallactics and astrolabes to observe the sun, moon and stars. The following year, he wrote a brief Commentary on the Theories of the Motions of the Heavenly Objects from Their Arrangements (De hypothesibus motuum coelestium a se constitutis commentariolus), but he refused to publish the manuscript and only discreetly circulated it among his most trusted friends. The Commentary was a first attempt to propound an astronomical theory that the earth moves and the sun remains at rest. ... "We revolve around the Sun," he concluded in Commentary, "like any other planet. Still, Copernicus feared exposing himself to the contempt of the populace and the church, and he spent years working privately to amend and expand the Commentary The result was On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium) which he completed in 1530, but withheld from publication for thirteen years. The risk of the church's condemnation was not, however, the only reason for Copernicus' hesitancy to publish. Copernicus was a perfectionist and consider his observations in constant need of verification and revision. He continued to lecture on these principles of his planetary theory, even appearing before Pope Clement VII, who approved of his work. In 1536, Clement formally requested that Copernicus publish his theories. But it took a former pupil, 25-year-old Georg Joachim Rheticus of Germany, who relinquished his chair in mathematics in Wittenberg so that he could study under Copernicus, to persuade his master to publish On the Revolutions. In 1540, Rheticus assisted in the editing of the work and presented the manuscript to a Lutheran printed in Nuremberg, ultimately giving birth to the Copernican Revolution. When On the Revolutions appeared in 1543, it was attacked by Protestant theologians who held the premise of a heliocentric universe to be unbiblical. Copernicus' theories, they reasoned, might lead people to believe that they are simply part of a natural order, and not the masters of nature, the center around which nature was ordered. Because of this clerical opposition, and perhaps also general incredulity at the prospect of a non-geocentric universe, between 1543 and 1600, fewer than a dozen scientists embraced Copernican theory. Still, Copernicus had done nothing to resolve the major problem facing any system in which the earth rotated on its axis (and revolved around the sun), namely, how it is that terrestrial bodies stay with the rotating Earth. The answer was proposed by Giordano Bruno, and Italian scientist and avowed Copernican, who suggested that space might have no boundaries and that the solar system might be one of many such systems in the universe. Bruno also expanded on some purely speculative areas of astronomy that Copernicus did not explore in On the Revolutions. In his writings and lectures, the Italian scientist held that there were infinite worlds in the universe with intelligent life, some perhaps with beings superior to humans. Such audacity brought Bruno to the attention of the Inquisition, which tried and condemned him for his heretical beliefs. He was burned at the stake in 1600. By 1543, Copernicus became paralyzed on his right side, and weakened both physically and mentally. The man who was clearly a perfectionist had no choice but to surrender control of his manuscript, On the Revolutions, in the last stages of printing. He entrusted his student, George Rheticus with the manuscript, but when Rheticus was forced to leave Nuremberg, the manuscript fell into the hands of Lutheran theologian Andreas Osiander. Osiander, hoping to appease advocates of the geocentric theory, made several alterations without Copernicus's knowledge and consent. Osiander placed the word "hypothesis" on the title page, deleted important passages and added his own sentences which diluted the impact and certainty of the work. Copernicus was said to have received a copy of the printed book in Frauenburg on his deathbed, unaware of Osiander's revisions. The foreword, at first ascribed to Copernicus, is held to have been written by Andrew Osiander, a Lutheran theologian and friend of Copernicus, who saw the De Revolutionibus through the press.

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 1861 days ago by deek

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03:47
03:47
03:47

Cosmos Episodio 3 parte 7/7

Episodio 3: La armonía de los mundos Contenido: Astronomí­a vs astrologí­a Ptolomeo y el modelo geocéntrico Johannes Kepler y Tycho Brahe Las Leyes de Kepler. Fuente: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmos:_Un_viaje_personal Episode 3: The Harmony of the Worlds Contents: 1. Opening 2. Astronomers vs. Astrologers Astronomy vs. astrology 3. Astrology Careful observations, fuzzy thinking and pious fraud. 4. Laws of Nature 5. Constellations Constellations and ancient astronomy 6. Astronomers Anasazian ceremonial calendar 7. Ptolemy/Copernicus Ptolemy and the geocentric world view 8. Johannes Kepler 9. Kepler and Tycho Brahe 10. Kepler's Laws 11. The Somnium The first Science Fiction book: The Dream Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmos:_A_Personal_Voyage

Channels: The Astronomers 

Added: 2702 days ago by deek

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07:27
07:27
07:27

Gustav Holst - The Planets - Mars, the Bringer of War

Gustav Holst - The Planets - Mars, the Bringer of War

Channels: Music 

Added: 3052 days ago by Astro

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06:29
06:29
06:29

RESPECT NOT THE MORON - Ordono Mundi

Respect not Morons and be not afraid to name them they have belief in imaginary beings and know not the facts. Do not despise them but invite them to join the Astronomers accept the facts and be saced from Ignorance by the knowing of stuff..

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Added: 2702 days ago by deek

Views: 1104 | Comments: 0

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10:10
10:10
10:10

Earth Story 1- The Living Earth Part 1

Earth Story - The Living Earth Part 1

Channels: Planetary science 

Added: 3060 days ago by cornelius

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09:54
09:54
09:54

PRAISE THE LAWS (of physics) - Ordono Mundi

One time fellow traveller welcome to the ministry of tspace time and the church of great stdy , I am the very reverend Ordo mundi humble servant of universe, maintainer of the laws of physic and student of the on ething greater than I am. great googly moogly

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Added: 2702 days ago by deek

Views: 1086 | Comments: 0

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06:46
06:46
06:46

Hubble Space Telescope - Better Than Ever!

Science & Reason on Facebook: http://tinyurl.com/ScienceReason The Hubble Space Telescope Is Back - Better Than Ever! Final Servicing Mission. --- Please subscribe to Science & Reason: • http://www.YouTube.com/Best0fScience • http://www.YouTube.com/ScienceMagazine • http://www.YouTube.com/ScienceTV • http://www.YouTube.com/FFreeThinker --- "Improved Hubble Shows Evidence of Dark Matter" • http://www.youtube.com/user/tdarnell#play/uploads/2/3wluv08tDhU • http://www.deepastronomy.com/ "When Hubble Opened its New Eyes" • http://www.youtube.com/AndromedasWake • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bytNgT7l8k "The Hubble Space Telescope - Rebirth of an Icon (Hubblecast 30)" • http://www.youtube.com/ESOcast • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hjy7YSIH-GI --- The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by the space shuttle in April 1990. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although not the first space telescope, the Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well-known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency, and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Space telescopes were proposed as early as 1923. The Hubble was funded in the 1970s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster. When finally launched in 1990, scientists found that the main mirror had been ground incorrectly, severely compromising the telescope's capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality. Hubble's orbit outside the distortion of Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble's Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image ever made of the universe's most distant objects. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe. The Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. There have been five servicing missions, the last occurring in May 2009. Servicing Mission 1 took place in December 1993 when Hubble's imaging flaw was corrected. Servicing missions 2, 3A, and 3B repaired various sub-systems and replaced many of the observing instruments with more modern and capable versions. However, following the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, the fifth servicing mission was canceled on safety grounds. After spirited public discussion, NASA reconsidered this decision, and administrator Mike Griffin approved one final Hubble servicing mission. STS-125 was launched in May 2009, and installed two new instruments and made numerous repairs. The latest servicing should allow the telescope to function until at least 2014, when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is due to be launched. The JWST will be far superior to Hubble for many astronomical research programs, but will only observe in infrared, so it will complement (not replace) Hubble's ability to observe in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_Space_Telescope .

Channels: Observational astronomy 

Added: 1763 days ago by Ordonomundi

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