Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku explains the larger implications of the God Particle's discovery. For more CNN videos, check out our YouTube channel at http://www.youtube.com/cnn Or visit our site at http://www.cnn.com/
So it has finally been announced (4th July 2012) that the Higgs boson has been discovered but what is it? Almost 50 years ago Peter Higgs proposed the existence of the Higgs boson and since then scientists have been looking for it! At the cost of billions of pounds, it has finally been found. Was it worth all the effort? In this Horizon episode first broadcast on 9th January 2012, Physicists working at CERN explain what the Higgs boson is? Is it really the biggest scientific discovery for a hundred years? Prof Jim Al-Khalli presents this Horizon Special produced by the BBC. Should Professor Peter Higgs get knighted and receive the Nobel Prize? Is the nickname "The God Particle" misleading?
Democritus, Leucippus, Dalton, Thompson, Rutherford and Bohr...all of their contributions to the modern model of the atom are outlined. The gold-foil experiment is also detailed.
The Ruther Fords Alpha particle-gold foil experiment has proved that most of the mass of an atom is concentrated only in a very small region and thus he called this region as the nucleus of atom. Ruther Ford proposed that (BUT WITHOUT ANY EXPERIMANTAL EVIDENCES) electrons revolved around their nuclei in circular orbits with which are just sufficient to balance the attractive force by nuclei. Unfortunately no scientists have questioned this high-speed motion of electrons around the nucleus and this was the beginning of the development of many misleading theories in the history of physical science. Matter wave, uncertainty principle, electron cloud around the nucleus, wave particle duality for particles etc. Charged particles like electron have a standing- electric field and magnetic field in right angle regardless of any kind of its motions.Uncharged particles like neutron have a standing- magnetic field.Since the standing- electric and magnetic fields, an electron cannot travel in a straight line when it accelerated.When a neutron is accelerated, its standing- magnetic field makes it to oscillate. In essence, a particles standing field lines is the reason for the wave nature when it moves at a high speed.The Davisson and Germer experiment showed that particles behave as wave when they are accelerated. But without knowing the structure of particles they blindly supported the Louis DeBroglies matter wave theory.This matter wave theory has led to the development of the quantum mechanical model of atom.The model says that, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by a series of stationary waves. These waves have crests at certain points, each complete standing wave representing an orbit. The absolute square of the amplitude of the wave at any point at a given time is a measure of the probability that an electron will be found there. Thus, an electron can no longer be said to be at any precise point at any given time. This series of stationary waves by the electrons are used today for explaining all phenomenon that generated by atoms. Jumping of electrons: The space matter density decreases with the increasing of the distance from the nucleus. When an electron oscillates in an atom, for the every oscillation toward the direction of the nucleus, the high density space matter in the inner region of the atom expels the electron to an outer low density space matter region. Line spectrum of hydrogen atom: When the electron shell of a hydrogen atom is excited it will oscillate in its natural frequency, and so the electron present in the shell. This oscillation of the electron causes the emission of the shortest wavelength Lyman series photon (because that frequency is the natural frequency of the electron shell of hydrogen atom) and jumps from the shell to an outer transitory shell. If there is no any further excitation for the atom, the electron will instantaneously falls back to its original shell. Also, this fall into the shell can cause, the shell get excited in a nominal fashion and the emission of a low intensity photon in the natural frequency of the shell. But, if the transitory shell (to which the electron has initially jumped) is simultaneously excited by some ways (for example, collision of an energetic electron from an external source-in a discharge tube or collision between atom),the electron will again get excited and emit a photon in a longer wavelength, in the natural frequency of that transitory shell. Also, this excitation of the electron causes a further jumping to a more outer transitory shell, and these processes can be continued until the electron is expelled out from the atom and to turn the atom into plasma of hydrogen at a very high temperature.For very jumping of the electron to a more and more outer transitory shells, and the excitation of that transitory shell can cause the emission of more and more long wavelength photons, and this is the reason for the emission of more long wavelength photons like Balmer series, Paschen series, Brackett series, Pfund series etc. http://www.physics-edu.org
A video from the Senior physics Structure of the Atom series describing the earliest atom models. More vids- http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit4/Unit4.html
better sound quality- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsA_oIXdF_8 Another dated yet informative video describing the wave mechanical model. More vids- http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit4/Unit4.html More info- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_configuration
Another video from the Senior physics series looking at early nunclear research. More vids- http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit4/Unit4.html
Another video from the Structure of the Atom series regarding Spectra (video quality reduced due to resolution of source video being 160x120). Source- http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit4/Unit4.html More info- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectroscopy
better sound quality- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hpKhjKrBn9s A very dated but informative educational video describing the Bohr model (electron configeration) which could be described as the birth of Quantum Mechanics. More vids- http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit4/Unit4.html More info- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bohr_Model
Another dated yet informative video describing the wave mechanical model (re-uploaded with improved sound quality). More vids- http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit4/Unit4.html More info- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_configuration
Old school filmstrip on the structure of the atom. Digital video was taken of the filmstrip and then edited with Windows Movie Maker. This is the first method I had to covert these videos, it seems to be the least favorable.
Another informative video from the Senior physics series describing the Rutherford model. More vids- http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit4/Unit4.html More info- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_configuration