It's that time again! Three Minute Philosophy returns with a rapid-fire lesson about the father of science, Galileo Galilei.
http://www.myspace.com/acorvettes When Galileo published his book debating the Copernican and Ptolemaic systems, the Church found him guilty of heresy and sentenced him to house arrest for the rest of his life. Today, Galileo is recognized for his revolutionary work in both astronomy and physics, and has been referred to as "the father of modern science." In addition to his findings in support of the Copernican system, his theories regarding falling objects and objects in motion laid the groundwork for classical mechanics. He was also a pioneer in the approach we call the scientific method, which utilizes observation and experiment. In 1992, three hundred and fifty years after his death, the Church officially apologized for condemning Galileo and his scientific research.
Purchase: http://hilaroad.com/video/ Galileo's investigation of the pendulum played a role in the evolution of science. He performed some of the first experiments while discovering the relationship among length, mass and displacement. If you are teaching the scientific method, the pendulum is a good project to start with. Galileo probably gained insight into many issues around motion from his investigation of the pendulum. The video also mentions issues with the church and academia.
Pretty animation (Premiere and After FX) about the sun, and bright, shiny stuff, and Copernicus.
The Catholic Church listed Copernicus' "De revolutionibus" on its Index of Prohibited Books, thus prohibiting its publication and denying the physical reality of the earth's movement around the sun. Andreas Cellarius circumvented the ban by depicting the theory in the lavish and ingenious drawings of "Harmonia macrocosmica", the most beautiful and famous Celestial Atlas. See Perfect Re-creations of Cellarius' works and the Church-banned Mercator World Map at DiscoveryEditions.com/Heresy
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th-century astronomer whose findings were condemned by the Roman Catholic Church as heretical, was reburied by Polish priests as a hero on Saturday. (May 22)
Simulation of the Ptolemaic geocentric model and then the Copernican heliocentric model of the solar system, from 1543-1550; original movie by Rick Pogge, using Starry Night Pro (v3.0.2); Download original video from http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast161/Movies/
Gridkeeper Music http://www.youtube.com/gridkeepermusic Lunar Moon Crater Copernicus Close up 2009 filmed through a 12" Meade LX 90 telescope by John Lenard Walson. Video edit, audio and hosting by Gridkeeper. I tried to get this clearer but it's still not enough. The original film is incredible. This might look better when viewed on a Mac and old PC screens, not the LCD ones. PLease watch using the high quality option. Latest audio house/dance release from Gridkeeper - Moon Transmissions e.p. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Moon-Transmissions-e-p/dp/B0029BTYAU/ref=sr_f3_1?ie=UTF8&s=dmusic&qid=1242155027&sr=103-1
Basia's album ITS THAT GIRL AGAIN was released March 2009 Check www.basiasongs.com or www.basiaweb.com Basia singing "Copernicus" - during The Sweetest Illusion Tour, 1994 - at Sala Kongresowa in Warsaw. One of my favs :-) And especially love this one of concert videos cause Basia and all the band seem to be enjoying it so much! Basia śpiewa piosenkę "Copernicus" podczas koncertu w Sali Kongresowej w Warszawie, w trakcie trasy promującej album The Sweetest Illusion, 1994. No copyrights offence intended! All copyrights go to their respective holders!
I can see you now Like a million suns alight As they pierce the darkest night When all hope is gone and lost, I know... When I was a child I had the strangest dream A thousand mirrors All reflecting the same beam It seem so hard When you're left alone outside To lack a part in all the greatest things in life Now I'm at this crossroad The light will be my guide I can see you now Like a million suns alight As they pierce the darkest night When all hope is gone and lost, I know... So real at the time Making up my mind A stronger current Pulling me into its line When all hope was lost You became my friend And now we stand here in unity again Now we're at this crossroad The light will be our guide I can see you now Like a million suns alight As they pierce the darkest night When all hope is gone and lost... I can see you now Like a million suns alight As they pierce the darkest night When all hope is gone and lost When all hope is gone and lost Forever I'll be here, right by your side When all the times change and our worlds collide When I was a child I had the strangest dream A thousand mirrors All reflecting the same beam Now I'm at this crossroad The light will be my guide I can see you now Like a million suns alight As they pierce the darkest night When all hope is gone and lost... I can see you now Like a million suns alight As they pierce the darkest night When all hope is gone and lost When all hope is gone and lost, I know The Showdown 2010 Kontor New Media Copyright
Excerpts from Stephen Hawking's commentary in _On the Shoulders of Giants_ ISBN 9780762413485 The elderly priest was hesitant to divulge his theory, lest it provoke church authorities to any angry response, and so he withheld his work from all but a few astronomers. Compernicus' landmark De Revolutionibus was published while he was on his deathbed, in 1543. He did not live long enough to witness the chaos his heliocentric theory would cause. In March of 1513, Copernicus purchased 800 building stones, and a barrel of lime from his chapter so that he could build an observation tower. There, he made use of astronomical instruments such as quadrants, parallactics and astrolabes to observe the sun, moon and stars. The following year, he wrote a brief Commentary on the Theories of the Motions of the Heavenly Objects from Their Arrangements (De hypothesibus motuum coelestium a se constitutis commentariolus), but he refused to publish the manuscript and only discreetly circulated it among his most trusted friends. The Commentary was a first attempt to propound an astronomical theory that the earth moves and the sun remains at rest. ... "We revolve around the Sun," he concluded in Commentary, "like any other planet. Still, Copernicus feared exposing himself to the contempt of the populace and the church, and he spent years working privately to amend and expand the Commentary The result was On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium) which he completed in 1530, but withheld from publication for thirteen years. The risk of the church's condemnation was not, however, the only reason for Copernicus' hesitancy to publish. Copernicus was a perfectionist and consider his observations in constant need of verification and revision. He continued to lecture on these principles of his planetary theory, even appearing before Pope Clement VII, who approved of his work. In 1536, Clement formally requested that Copernicus publish his theories. But it took a former pupil, 25-year-old Georg Joachim Rheticus of Germany, who relinquished his chair in mathematics in Wittenberg so that he could study under Copernicus, to persuade his master to publish On the Revolutions. In 1540, Rheticus assisted in the editing of the work and presented the manuscript to a Lutheran printed in Nuremberg, ultimately giving birth to the Copernican Revolution. When On the Revolutions appeared in 1543, it was attacked by Protestant theologians who held the premise of a heliocentric universe to be unbiblical. Copernicus' theories, they reasoned, might lead people to believe that they are simply part of a natural order, and not the masters of nature, the center around which nature was ordered. Because of this clerical opposition, and perhaps also general incredulity at the prospect of a non-geocentric universe, between 1543 and 1600, fewer than a dozen scientists embraced Copernican theory. Still, Copernicus had done nothing to resolve the major problem facing any system in which the earth rotated on its axis (and revolved around the sun), namely, how it is that terrestrial bodies stay with the rotating Earth. The answer was proposed by Giordano Bruno, and Italian scientist and avowed Copernican, who suggested that space might have no boundaries and that the solar system might be one of many such systems in the universe. Bruno also expanded on some purely speculative areas of astronomy that Copernicus did not explore in On the Revolutions. In his writings and lectures, the Italian scientist held that there were infinite worlds in the universe with intelligent life, some perhaps with beings superior to humans. Such audacity brought Bruno to the attention of the Inquisition, which tried and condemned him for his heretical beliefs. He was burned at the stake in 1600. By 1543, Copernicus became paralyzed on his right side, and weakened both physically and mentally. The man who was clearly a perfectionist had no choice but to surrender control of his manuscript, On the Revolutions, in the last stages of printing. He entrusted his student, George Rheticus with the manuscript, but when Rheticus was forced to leave Nuremberg, the manuscript fell into the hands of Lutheran theologian Andreas Osiander. Osiander, hoping to appease advocates of the geocentric theory, made several alterations without Copernicus's knowledge and consent. Osiander placed the word "hypothesis" on the title page, deleted important passages and added his own sentences which diluted the impact and certainty of the work. Copernicus was said to have received a copy of the printed book in Frauenburg on his deathbed, unaware of Osiander's revisions. The foreword, at first ascribed to Copernicus, is held to have been written by Andrew Osiander, a Lutheran theologian and friend of Copernicus, who saw the De Revolutionibus through the press.
A huge mile high Phoenix statue and a split tail NAZCA line Peru depicted massive abduction vessel are near the two KM high crater wall of this 53 mile/ 98 KM wide crater called Copernicus. It has two of the largest alien objects that can be seen from Earth with a large or pro class of telescope. The main picture was taken by Apollo 17 and the data is backed up in this video from the other side via PIA00094 taken years earlier by one of the NASA Lunar Orbiter satellites. I think Apollo 17 was a recon mission to observe an alien base in Copernicus captured in both Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 12 photos? Very ancient yet perfectly preserved on Earth's Moon. The cool thing about this photo is it is from the side of the moon faced toward Earth. This crater is located at 10 Deg. North and 20Deg West so we can locate the anomalies within its large parimeter. http://www.examiner.com/x-2912-Seattle-Exopolitics-Examiner~y2009m6d19-NASA-moon-bombing-violates-space-law--may-cause-conflict-with-lunar-extraterrestrial-civilizations
Johannes Kepler And The Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition - Best Of Carl Sagan's Cosmos (Part 18). Subscribe to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/SagansCosmos • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fScience • http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker BEST OF CARL SAGAN'S "COSMOS": 1) 10 Years After: Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan Reflect: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leTNfwfH0Jc 2) Lost Between Immensity And Eternity: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIVsDg6U0LU 3) The Realm Of The Galaxies: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1axoV6HhWfI 4) Our Galaxy, The Milky Way: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOazBTHzRYA 5) Our Solar System: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBqjob-UVeo 6) Eratosthenes And The Round Earth Model: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=en5UKtcNujI 7) The Library Of Alexandria: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVQs4B2jAW0 8) A Short History Of The Universe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7n2r0qOxJ6k 9) Artificial And Natural Selection: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3uToVWZkWM 10) The Cosmic Year: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFqbm_94nTM 11) Tree Of Life - 4 Billion Years Of Evolution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KF0UECN4ndA 12) The Miracle Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOyojWeOYNA 13) DNA - The Common Basis Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecmuvjSykf8 14) Abiogenesis The Origin Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yet1xkAv_HY 15) Astronomy vs Astrology: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImaQS9NJ0nI 16) Pictures In The Sky: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwCAwc4bge4 17) Ancient Astronomy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-5dwJwau1Y 18) Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lfmRqT-B_c 19) The Mysterious Tonguska Event: coming soon Carl Edward Sagan, Ph.D. (1934-1996) was an American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series "Cosmos: A Personal Voyage", which has been seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries, making it the most widely watched PBS program in history. A book to accompany the program was also published. He also wrote the novel "Contact", the basis for the 1997 Robert Zemecki's film of the same name starring Jodie Foster. During his lifetime, Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the scientific method. • http://www.carlsagan.com Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers based on his works "Astronomia nova", "Harmonices Mundi", and "Epitome of Copernican Astrononomy". They also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, the court mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II, a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei. Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of natural philosophy). • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler .
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An episode of "Great Moments in Science and Technology"
The Catholic Church listed Copernicus' "De revolutionibus" on its Index of Prohibited Books, thus prohibiting its publication and denying the physical reality of the earth's movement around the sun. Andreas Cellarius circumvented the ban by depicting the theory in the lavish and ingenious drawings of "Harmonia macrocosmica", the most beautiful and famous Celestial Atlas. See Perfect Re-creations of Cellarius' works and the Church-banned Mercator World Map at DiscoveryEditions.com/Heresy...
The History Channel Australia & New Zealand The Universe : 1/14 Beyond The Big Bang : 1/7 Copernicus Learn about Copernicus' theories of a sun-centered universe. --- It all began inside a violent, blinding explosion that threw everything into chaos. Ever since, our greatest thinkers have peered into that chaos in search of order, logic & the answers to where we began. As earlier generations learned to decipher the cosmic clues of how we came to be, we stepped from revelation to revelation; epiphany to epiphany. Aristotle told us the world was round. Ptolemy conceived of a system of planets, stars & sun. Copernicus placed the sun at the center of this system. Galileo confirmed it. Newton explained what held it all together. Einstein offered insight into what fueled it. Hubble proposed it started with a "Big Bang". Our search for answers has shaped how we have evolved as thinking creatures. The Big Bang is the history of why & how we think about who & what we are. We'll contemplate how various cultures believe the world began & how it will all end...& what comes after. & for the first time, we'll be able to see what it might have all looked like, sitting in God's front row seats. Using unprecedented cutting edge animation, The Big Bang will recreate that amazing moment when everything started. With interviews from the world's leading physicists, engineers & historians we will employ every storytelling tool to make complex & confusing ideas clear, exciting & dramatic. Recreations, visual metaphors & first-person accounts will explain concepts like: the formation of galaxies, the existence of other dimensions & the idea of a parallel universe. The Big Bang will pose one of history's greatest questions, Where do we begin? --- http://www.thehistorychannel.com.au